Part 3

# U and d Quarks

This chapter covers a possible constitution of u and d quarks from sCells, electrons and positrons. In particular, it provides a logical explanation of the mysterious charge of 2/3 and -1/3. If we apply the "distributed charge" model (see the previous page) to the quarks, we obtain interesting conclusions.

## U and d quarks

When quarks were discovered, physicists thought that the d quark is an u quark with an electron. A similar approach was emitted in 1932 when Chadwick discovered the neutron. He thought that the neutron is the association of a proton and an electron.

These ideas were dropped because this point of view is not in accordance with spin. However, today, the violation of spin is not longer an argument of opposition for different reasons, mainly confirmed by the "crisis of proton". Part 4 covers this subject.

If quarks are built according to the "distributed charge" model, we could have the following scheme. Please note that this figure has been deliberated simplified for teaching purposes.

This model seems confirmed in the following page by a formula that calculates the antimatter in the universe. For the moment, let's say that the central charge of both quarks is +2/3. The outer-shell electron (in its wave-form) of the d quark has a double effect: it decreases the charge from +2/3 to -1/3, while increasing the volume, i.e. mass (see Part 1 : Mass and Gravity). This explains the mass difference between the d and u quarks.

Note: Spin is covered in Part 4.

## Quarks construction

A suggestion of the construction of u and d quarks is represented in the following figure. The sequence is detailed for teaching purposes. Other sequences may also be proposed.

Constitution of quarks:

• With 2 positrons we make 3 u quarks
• d quark = u quark + electron

Notes
Experimentation gives a value different from 511 KeV for u quarks. Several explanations are possible. For example, the two positrons may merge with 10 sCells. In this case, the overall volume will be equal to 12 sCells (10 sCells + two positrons). The mass must be calculated from the mass formulae (see Part 1). It would be premature trying to solve this problem because it is impossible to isolate quarks and, therefore, results of experimentations (from 1.5 MeV to 3 MeV for the u quark) are not accurate. The lack of accuracy comes from the fact that quarks are not spherical, as predicted by the Spacetime Model. The scheme of the figure may need some adjustments, but there is no longer any doubt about the construction of the u and d quarks from electrons and positrons. If this quark configuration solves so many enigmas such as the location of antimatter in the universe (see the next webpage), it is not a simple matter of chance.