Part 4

EM Waves,Electromagnetism

This webpage gives additional explanations concerning the role of (quantified) waves in the Spacetime Model, taking into account results of Part 1 and Part 2 of this new theory.

Electromagnetic wavesSimplified explanation

Here is a simple experiment explaining the EM wave emission produced by an orbital change in atoms. You can do it yourself in your bathtub. This example highlights that a change of orbital produces waves, not photons.

• Open your hand beside your lengthened legs and wait until the water is quiet,
• Then, suddenly, close your hand,
• You will immediately feel a wave being propagated on your entire body.

Closing your hand produces a wave of water, which carries some energy. We have exactly the same phenomenon in spacetime. An orbital change of electron produces a movement in spacetime, which is not a photon but a quantified EM wave.

Electromagnetic WavesDetailed explanation

The following figure provides a second example.

A perforated balloon is immersed into a container filled with water. The holes allow water to infiltrate the balloon. If its volume varies from V1 to V2 or the converse, a wave of water is produced. However, since the balloon is perforated, the quantity of water remains unchanged.

The volume of water does not increase or decrease since these movements in water are bipolar (pressure + depression). This is exactly what occurs in electromagnetic waves.

Matter wavesSimplified explanation

The following figure shows a balloon having a volume V1 which is immersed into a container filled with water. Using a pump "P", air is removed from the baloon whose volume becomes V2. The difference DV = V1 - V2 of the balloon volume produces a wave. When the wave reaches the surface, it is transformed back into a volume of water DV identical to the decrease of the balloon's volume DV.

This experiment describes exactly how a mass (= closed volume) can be transformed into a wave, and may be transformed back into a mass (= closed volume too), and so on.

In addition, the faster the depression, the more energy the wave carries. This fact is also in accordance with experimentation: E = hn (also see below).

Matter wavesDetailed explanation

The two following figures show negative and positive matter waves. A "matter-wave" is a moving particle having its charge, or spacetime density, distributed in several sCells.

When a matter-wave is moving, each sCell transfers to its adjacent sCell some quantity of additional spacetime density (or electric charge), in positive or negative. These sCells become charged during the period of the wave. If the original particle is an electron for example, this wave is still the electron but in its wave form.

Electromagnetic wavesvs. Matter waves

The difference between "EM waves" and "matter waves" is only a question of charge.

• EM waves
The charge is bipolar, with positive and negative alternations. The whole charge of a group of sCells is neutral. These charges move gradually inside sCells. The charge of a sCell or a group of sCells, which is neutral, remains neutral for the full period. In this case, sCells do not get mass since they do not receive additional charge (+ or -).
• Matter waves
Each sCell receives, during a short period of time, an additional charge (+ or -). So, the charge is transmitted from sCells to adjacent sCells. The figure shows positive and negative charged sCells. The white rectangles represents neutral sCells.

E = hn

To understand this formula with sCells, according to the equality Mass = f(Closed Volume), let us consider again the first experiment at the top of this page.

While having your legs lengthened in your bathtub, quickly close your hand. You will note that the wave is more or less pronounced according to the velocity of the movement of your hand.

This reaction is exactly the same as the quantum phenomenon described by E = hn or E = h/T. The shorter the period of time, the greater the energy produced.

This simple experiment also demonstrates that closing your hand in water produces a wave, not an imaginary photon-like particle.

Electron-PositronAnnihilation

This phenomenon is an enigma with regard to its comprehension: "how can a mass (e+e-) be transformed into two gammas?".

We have already explained the e+e- annihilation in Part 2 "Constitution of Matter". A more accurate explanation is given below with sCells.

Let's consider that the electron and positron are both motionless, that is to say, the magnetic component of the EM field does not exist.

• When an electron meets a positron, the excess spacetime in one particle moves inside the other.
• The annihilation of the two charges is assimilated to a double Dq/Dt.
• Indeed, the charge of the positron passes from +1 to 0, whereas that of the electron from - 1 to 0.
• The annihilated electron and positron become two ordinary sCells.
• This annihilation produces two movements in spacetime, or EM waves.
• These movements, resulting from the double Dq/Dt, are propagated gradually through adjacent sCells.
• The EM radiation will not be propagated like a photon, but like an EM wave, quantified, if necessary, called "gamma".
• And finally, as seen in Part 2, if this gamma passes near a nucleus, it may be split into a negative and a positive part, if its energy allows.

As we see, sCells explain the e+e- annihilation with logic and consistency.

Note: Here, the anti-neutrino has been ignored for pedagogical reasons.