Part 5

# Unification of Forces

Most physicists consider that the three basic forces, gravitation, electroweak, and nuclear force, come from a generic force. Since we do not know the origin of these three basic forces, this assertion is pure speculation.

In accordance with experimentations, the Spacetime Model explains the origin of the three basic forces. Here we demonstrate that these three forces can be unified in two fundamental forces. These two generic forces are based on a common element: SPACETIME.

## Basic Forces

Physicists know four forces that can be reduced to three:

• Gravity
Gravity is described in Part 1. It is a pressure force produced by the curvature of spacetime on closed volumes. Since spacetime has elasticity properties (Einstein), this force is nothing but an elastic force, often called "Hooke Force".
• Weak nuclear force (= electroweak)
This force is responsible of radioactivity. Part 3 covers this subject.
• Electromagnetic force (= electroweak)
The origin of the EM force is the variations of spacetime density inside the sCells. As explained in Part 4, the magnetic force is a particular case of the Coulomb Force. The only difference is the sCell polarization: 1D, 2D or 3D.
• Strong nuclear force
It is the force that binds protons and neutrons (nucleons) together to form the nucleus. The same force also holds quarks together to form protons, neutrons and other hadrons. In reality, the strong nuclear force does not exist per se. As shown in Part 3, electrons and positrons surround some particles like a rubber band. This force is an "elastic force of constraint" which comes from the Hooke Law. It is identical to gravity, which also conforms to an elastic force. In gravity, the pressure comes from sCells. In the strong nuclear force, the pressure also comes from spacetime, more precisely from electrons and/or positrons (see Part 3). Since sCells, electrons, and positrons, are made of spacetime, gravity and the strong nuclear force are finally identical.

Weinberg and Salam (Nobel Prize 1979) proved that the weak nuclear force is nothing but the EM force. These two have been merged into a common force called "Electroweak Force".

The Spacetime Model goes further demonstrating that EM waves, W or Z bosons, protons, neutrons, electrons, gluons... and all basic elements are always made of spacetime.

## Two fundamental forces

The only existing relation between the Hooke Force and the Coulomb Force is spacetime. These two forces cannot be unified since the first is a pressure force on any particles, while the second is an attractive - repulsive force, which relates only to the charged particles, i.e. sCells with a positive or negative Ddensity of spacetime.